by Evan Allen

Plants and animals both need air. They both need water. They both need space. All living things need food.

Plants and Animals
Have Needs
Plants and animals are living things. All living things have needs. Needs can
be different for different living things. Plants need light from the Sun. Animals need shelter. All living things share some needs.

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Some living things can make their own food. They are called producers. Plants are producers. They use light from the Sun to make food in their leaves and stems. Green plants can make food.


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Some living things cannot make food inside their own bodies. They are called consumers.
Consumers look for food in their habitats.
Animals are consumers.
Cows need grass to eat.
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Different Needs
Different animals have different needs.
Big animals need more food, water, and space. Small animals need less food, water, and space.

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Plants and animals share habitats. They help each other to get what
they need.
Sometimes habitats do not have enough food. When this happens some animals might die.
A gilded flicker nests in a cactus.

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Getting Food
In a Grassland
Food chains show how living things get food. All food chains start with the Sun. Plants use
energy from the Sun to make food. Animals eat those plants. Other animals eat those animals.
These are the steps of a food chain.
gazelles grazing in
a grassland habitat

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grass
prairie dog
black-footed ferret
Energy passes from the Sun to the black- footed ferret in this food chain. Animals in
food chains can be predators or prey. Predators
catch and eat other animals. The animals they
eat are prey.

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Sun daisy
Energy moves in the steps of
a food chain. Look at the grassland food chain above. Energy goes from
the Sun to a daisy plant.


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butterfly
skink
A butterfly feeds on the daisy. The butterfly gets energy too. A skink eats the butterfly.
The skink gets energy. The energy has moved
from the Sun to the skink.

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Food Web in a Grassland
Habitats can have more than one food chain. Grasslands have more than one food chain.
All the food chains in a grassland make up a food web.
raccoon

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Look at the picture of a grassland food web. The Sun helps plants make food. Some animals eat the plants. Other animals eat those animals. Follow the arrows to see the
different food chains.
hawk
vole
mountain lion
coyote

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Getting Food
In an Ocean
An ocean is another habitat. Many plants
and animals live there. These plants and animals get energy through food chains.
Look at the ocean food chain below.
What animals are part of this food chain?
mussels
zooplankton
orca
codfish

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seal
orca
starfish
crab
sea urchin
sea gull
kelp
Ocean food chains make up food webs. Look at the plants and animals. How does
energy move from the Sun to the orca?

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Food Webs
Can Change
Lots of things can change a food web. Some changes can be bad. They hurt
the plants and animals in the food web.

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People can change food webs. When people throw trash in the ocean they hurt ocean food webs. People can help too. It helps when people try to keep the ocean clean.
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Plants and Animals
Help Each Other
Plants and animals can help each other. These wasps are getting food from a fig.
young fig wasps feeding on a fig

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Yucca moths help yucca plants. They take pollen from plant to plant. This helps new plants grow.
Yucca plants help yucca moths. The moths lay their eggs in the plants. When they hatch, the young moths find shelter
in the plant.
Yucca plants and yucca moths help each other.
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Building Nests
Animals can use parts of plants and other animals to build nests. They can use leaves. They can use feathers.
What parts of plants and animals do you see in this nest?

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Animals Need Each Other
Animals need each other in many ways. Animals work together. They can protect each other. They can feed each other. They can give each other a place to live.
The oxpecker eats ticks that live on the rhino’s back. This keeps the rhino clean. The rhino and the oxpecker need each other.
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Dairy ants and aphids live together and help each other. The ants keep predators away from the aphids. The aphids make honeydew. The honeydew is a sweet treat for the ants to eat.
aphid

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Plants and animals live together. They share needs. Living things help each other in many ways.
dairy ant
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Glossary
consumer a living thing that eats other living things
food chain how living things get energy from food
food web more than one food chain in one place
predator an animal that hunts and eats other animals
prey animals that are hunted for food
producer a living thing that makes its own food
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What did you learn?
1. What is the difference between a producer and a consumer?
2. What can animals use to build nests?
3. Energy moves through a food chain. Write to explain how it moves. Use words from the book as you write.
4. Cause and Effect What happens when habitats cannot meet the needs of the plants and animals that live there?